La substitution diatonique c’est quoi ? – Apprendre le Jazz Manouche

Hi, it’s Clément. In today’s video, we’ll talk about diatonic substitutions. I already have made a video on substitutions. It was on tritonics. You can click on the I as Info up on the right, to see the article. Today, let’s talk about diatonic substitutions. I’ll try to explain what it is and how it works, how to use it in your improvisations. Before that, there’s some theorical notions
to know Therefore, I advise you to read the article I wrote on gypsy jazz theory, in whitch I explain the scale harmonisation, how a scale is builded, the chords and so on. It’ll be usefull for a better understanding of what I will explain in this video. If you haven’t read this artcicle, you can also click on the I as infos up on the right of the video. Read it and get the best understanding possible of what I will explain. A substitution is replacing a chord by another chord. It will be usefull in improvisation for using an aperggio on a different chord that the one of the song. For example, if you play in C the first chord of All of me for instance, you can play a different arpeggio of C on this C. In this video, I explain the rules and how to use it. The first thing to learn is the scale harmonisation, the degrees. You have to know if a degree is major, minor, 7, m7b5. This is explained in the article on the gyspy jazz theory. I’ll show you the harmonisation of C. It goes like this: C Dm. I use basic positions, M7, m7. You can also use the gypsy positions, M6, m7/9 and so on. Here, I use simple positions, C, Dm Em, F, G7, Am, Bm7b5 or half diminished. And you get back to C. This is the scale harmonisation. To each chord matchs a degree. 1rst degree, D, 2nd degree, Dm, 3rd degree, Em, 4th degree, F, 5th degree, G7, 6th degree, Am, 7th degree, Bm7b5 or B half diminished, you can use both names, same thing. And you get back to C, 1rst degree. You can combine some of them, thanks to the diatonic substitution rules. Let’s start with 1rst degree: C the one I play here, and here too. It’s 1rst degree. you can substitute 1rst degree for 3rd degree and for 6th degree. 3rd degree, as I said already, is Em. 6th degree is Am. You can substitute theses 3 chords together. If you want to know why, you’ll see that the notes of theses chords
are really close. For instance, if you play C7, you get B, well, C,E,G,B, and you get back to C. E,G,B are the notes of Em arpeggio. The notes of Em arpeggio are part of the notes of C7 arpeggio. That’s the reason why those chords are so close. And that’s why they can be substituted. You can also see things like this: when you play C7, this pattern, just put the index on the 3rd of C, on E. You get Em. You can see that, aside from few notes, they are the same chords. But the color that’ll give will be different. It’s a bit the same for Am. I already said that you can substitute C 1rst degree for 3rd degree/EM or for 6th degree/Am. When you play Am7, you play A,C,E,G These are exactly the notes of Cm6, C,E,G,A. Again, these chords are very close. When you play Am7, and you move this note to 3rd, here C you get C, Am7 C. That’s why these chords are so close and can be substituted. To summerize the first diatonic substitution rule: you can substitute a 1st degree chord
for a 3rd degree or 6th degree chord For C, you get either Em or Am. For instance, in G, you can substitute G for 3rd degree, G,A,B for Bm or the 6th degree of G, G,A,B,C,D,E will be Em. You will have to know this in all the tones. That’s why you’d better know scale degrees and how to harmonise a scale. That’s for the first diatonic substitution. Now, to locate it on the neck: when you are on 1st degree, 3rd degree starts on 3rd. To locate 3rd, if you put your middle finger here for instance it’s will be under the index. If you are playing in A, you know that the substitution chord
will be under the index. In this case, it’ll be C-sharp m on A. If you are playing in D, the third is under the index, it’ll be F-sharp. It’s a little visual help. If you are on A string, it’s the same. If you’re playing in E for instance the 3rd degree minor chord will be under the index. Here, it’ll be G-sharp on E. To find the 6th degree chord of 1st degree, it will locate 3 frets below. For instance, in C, you go down 3 frets 1,2,3 and you get to Am. If you’re playing in D, you go down and get to Bm. If you are in G, you’ll get to Em. That’s a little visual way to locate them. That’s for the first substitution rule. As for the second one, the substitution will be between 2nd degree and 4th degree. If you play in C, 2nd degree, as I already said before, is Dm. You can substitute Dm for 4th degree. So for C, you get F. And I showed you for Am and C, you get quite the same here. These 2 chords are very very close. If you play Dm7 and you look at the notes which compose it, you’ll see that they are the same as in F6. That’s for the second diatonic substitution rule. You can substitute 2nd degree for 4th degree. To locate it on the neck, it’s the same. If you play in D, 2° will be 3 frets ahead. 3 or 4 frets, depends if you start
with the first one… If you count D, 1,2,3, you get to F. And when you are on F, here or here for instance, it’ll be 3 frets below. You can substitute these 2 chords. That’s the second rule of diatonic substitution. As for the third one, it will be between the 5th degree chord
and the 7th degree chord. If you play in C, it’ll be G and Bm7b5. As for the others, these 2 chords are really close. They have almost all the same notes. For instance, if I play G7, like this, I put my index on 3rd, I play the note played by the little finger a tone below, here, 9 of G, you get Bm7b5. As for the others, these 2 chords you get
are really close. Bm7b5 G7. That’s for the 3rd rule of diatonic subtitution. You can change 5th degree for the 7th degree. All this will be usefull in your improvisations. You won’t always play the arpeggio chord on the chord. For instance, if you play All of me, the first chord is C, 1st degree. You get to play either 3rd degree, Em arpeggio or 6th degree arpeggio of Am. After all, it’s the same. In All of Me when you play Dm, Dm, G7,C, you can play on Dm, F thanks to the substitution rule
between 2nd degree and 4th degree. And on G7, you can play Bm7b5 for instance. This will expand your improvisation, adding arpeggios and chords that you wouldn’t have thought of, not knowing those rules. To summerize all this: the diatonic substitution rule allows you to substitute 1st degree, 3rd degree ,6th degree. First rule. Second rule, you can substitute 2nd degree
and 4th degree. Third rule, substitute 5th degree and 7th degree. That’s all for the rule of diatonic substitutions. I also made a video on the tritonic substitution that you can watch by clicking on I as Infos. Others substitutions exist but more complex
harmonically speaking. They add notes that don’t belong to tones or chords. It expand the color and the playing. But it’ harder regarding to the theory and it requests further knowledges. I won’t talk about it in this video. But I might make one, one of these days
on these kinds of substitution. There. You know everything regarding this one. I hope you enjoyed the video. Don’t hesitate to pint a blue thumb
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